TQ3104 : 2-3 Gardner Street

taken 10 years ago, near to Brighton and Hove, Great Britain

2-3 Gardner Street
2-3 Gardner Street
One of three empty shops on the street at the moment along with TQ3104 : 10 Gardner Street and TQ3104 : 21 Gardner Street. Located on the corner of Gardner Street and Church Street, the last occupants, Prime Menswear, closed their doors at the end of August, leaving the shop empty awaiting new tenants. Initially two single shops, they were joined together in 1886 and have remained that way except for a period during the 1980s. The business that joined them together was a jeweller, J.W Terry, who carried on his jewelling trade in number two, and concentrated on clocks and watches in number three. Terry moved into the former in 1868 and his business was to remain here for a staggering 118 years only closing in 1986, though the business had moved out of number three in 1981 when a shoe repairers moved in for the duration of that decade. A reminder can be found at the doorway to each shop, see TQ3104 : 2 Gardner Street Mosaic and TQ3104 : 3 Gardner Street Mosaic. After the demise of Terry's a series of menswear shops moved in from 1987, the first Top Gear, eventually amalgamating the two units into one again in 1991.

OCCUPANTS
Number 2 Only
1839-40: FURNITURE BROKER: John Wise
1845-46: CIRCULATING LIBRARY: John Wise
1848-67: TAILOR & HABIT MAKER: George Wall
Number 3 only
1839-81: MILLINER: George Wall (1839-46), Priscilla Wall (1848-62), Mrs Bennett (1864-68), Mrs Upton (1869-81)
1883-86: TOBACCONIST: Mrs Costello
Number 2-3 together
1868-1986: JEWELLER: J.W.Terry (Later just Terry's)
1981-91: SHOE REPAIRS: Just a minute (1981-88), Mister Minit (1990-91) - 3 only
1987-2011: MENSWEAR: Top Gear (1987-2000), Bambu (2001-08), Prime (2008-11)
Gardner Street History

Gardner Street lies between Church Street to the south and North Road to the north and is the second of the four shopping streets that make up the North Laine area. The street was developed from 1805 onwards by John Furner on the site of his market garden, hence the name. The garden had been located on what was the First Furlong of the former field known as the North Laine. All the houses were built as three stories which assisted in the street adapting to retail fairly early on and by the 1880s century all of the ground floors had been converted.

As Brighton expanded northwards during the 19th century the street, along with neighbouring North Road, became the major shopping street for the local community in the tightly packed terraces that sprang up during that period. Slightly more upmarket than Kensington Gardens and Sydney Street to the north, it would eventually attract the first retail chains, Home & Colonial Stores, Pearks, Maypole Diaries, Freeman, Hardy & Willis, and Marks & Spencer on the corner of North Road. Another, Tesco, would later see off many of these as well as change part of the street architecturally. Despite this a number of small businesses from the Victorian era survived into the 1980s; Terry's the jeweller, traded for 118 years before closing in 1986, Bolton the Egg Merchant until 1984, and most famously, Bealls & Co, the cork merchants closed in 1983 after 100 years and being the last of its kind in the country.

Changes in retail began around the 1960s, particularly the arrival of Tesco, who knocked down four houses to build a new superstore and began to drive the local food stores out of business which would eventually be replaced by fashion and clothing stores, particularly from the 1980s once the threat of demolition of the previous decade had been averted. These have been joined by a proliferation of cafes in the last decade helped by the pedestrianisation of the street at weekends allowing the eateries to place seats and tables in the street.

North Laine

The North Laine is an area of central Brighton named after a former field and is home to what some refer to as the Bohemian quarter of the city and also refers to the four main shopping streets of the area; Bond Street, Gardner Street, Kemsington Gardens and Sydney Street. A laine was a Sussex term for a large field often but not exclusively bordering downland and regularly split into smaller holdings known as furlongs which themselves were split into even smaller strips known as ‘paul pieces’. This medieval set up survived within the old parish of Brighton well into the 19th century and was to have a profound influence on the street patterns established by the rapid expansion of the town from the 1840s onwards. The original boundary of the field called North Laine ran along what later became Church Street to the south, what are now the Old Steine and London Road (A23) to the east, New England Road the (A270) to the north and the crest of the hill to the west which contains St Nicholas’ church. The North Laine itself was split into smaller rectangular fields known as furlongs which were both numbered and named, First, Second, Third and Small Furlong for example. Within the furlongs were strips of land maybe 500 ft long but little more than 12 to 20 feet wide known as paul pieces which were farmed by individual lease or freeholders many of whom owned more than one but more often than not these were not contiguous. In order to access these individual strips paths between the furlongs existed known as leakways and often ran east to west.

As Brighton began expanding northwards in the 1820s these strips began to acquire a value as developmental land and were purchased and built on as and when they were acquired, to build a whole street required two adjacent paul pieces though often a developer would build one side of a street then await the sale of the land on the opposite for himself or another developer to complete. Furthermore, the existence of the leakways meant developers need not wait for land to become vacant in a specific order. For example, Kensington Gardens was constructed in the 1820s in the middle of the Second Furlong and remained surrounded by fields for a couple more decades. The leakways themselves became streets; North Road separates First and Second Furlong; Gloucester Road, second and third; Trafalgar Street, third and fourth; Cheapside, fourth and short; and Ann Street, short and crooked.

The slow move northwards was given huge impetus by the arrival of the railway and resulting works in the 1840s onwards which required housing for the new workers and within a decade the whole of the former North Laine had been developed into tightly packed streets that followed the old pattern of the former medieval field system. For many decades the area was a working class district containing workshops, small industries and the odd slum, part of the north west was demolished to make way for the new locomotive works and goods yard but little else changed with much of the area surviving the first large scale slum clearances of the 1930s before that was bought to a halt by the Second World War. It was in the postwar era when the more progressive elements within the town planning sphere decided that the housing stock had reached the end of its natural life and needed replacing. During the 1960s the whole neighbourhood bounded by the goods yard, London Road, New England Road and Trafalgar Street was demolished with many residents dispersed to new estates on the edge of town or into Theobald House a high rise block immediately to the north of Trafalgar Street with the rest of the area given over to office blocks, multi storey car parks or small business premises.

The planners then moved their gaze onto the rest of the North Laine and began plans to demolish much of it in order to build more multi storey car parks as well as a new flyover to bring the cars to them. It was at this point that residents and traders organised themselves and put their foot down and the name of North Laine was reborn appearing in the title of the community association that was set up in 1976. The brave new world of planning from the 1960s had given way to the less confident 1970s with the desire to preserve greater by those having witnessed the destruction and loss of the previous decade as well as influencing many of those within the decision making processes. By 1977 the local council had renamed it the North Laine Conservation Area and thus began a new chapter in the life of this part of Brighton. Initially the shops in the area still served local concerns and those following the route that linked the two main shopping areas of Brighton, the town centre and London Road. The threat of demolition had also meant the area was cheap to rent and attracted many small operators starting out (famously Anita Roddick began the Body Shop in Kensington Gardens) and others forced out through high rents elsewhere – the antiques trade in particular were forced into the area from The Lanes due to this. The North Laine traders have also fought tooth and nail to keep the main chains out of the area which they by and large have succeeded in doing though some such as Starbucks and Tesco have gained a small foothold through the new Jubilee Street development. Gradually, the retail trade has moved away from the butchers, bakers and greengrocers and the needs of everyday life towards the lifestyle based desires and services.

The North Laine remains a popular destination today for students, out of towners and locals looking for items not normally found on the high street and still retains the anything goes atmosphere that has been built up over the last thirty years or so.

FURTHER READING
Sue Berry - Georgian Brighton (Phillimore, 2005)
Tim Carder - The Encyclopedia of Brighton (Brighton Libraries, 1990)

Notes on Sources and Bibliography

All dates are based on the directories mentioned below.

Street Directories
Brighton’s extend from 1799 to 1974 and were produced by a number of different companies to begin with before Kelly’s became the only provider beyond 1929. These directories were split into a number of sections; residential and commercial but more importantly listed the main occupier and trade on a street by street basis in order of house number. Listed below are the directories and year consulted.
For a greater in depth explanation see John Farrant Sussex Directories 1784 - 1975 (2002) LinkExternal link

USED
Kelly’s: 1845, 1918, 1921-24, 1930-31, 1933-40, 1947, 1949, 1951, 1954, 1956, 1958, 1960, 1962, 1964, 1968, 1969-74
Folthorps: 1846, 1850, 1856, 1862, 1864
Taylor: 1854
Pages: 1867-71, 1873, 1877, 1879, 1885, 1887, 1889-90, 1892
Robinsons: 1884, 1886
Walsers: 1888, 1891
Towners: 1894, 1896-98, 1900-03, 1905-06
Pikes: 1899, 1904, 1907-17, 1919-21, 1925-27, 1929

Yellow Pages
The arrival of BT’s freely distributed business directory in 1975 sounded the death knell of the street directories which required purchasing. Unlike the street directories, Yellow Pages (YP from here onwards) lists by trade category which means searching for shops on a street requires reading them cover to cover, fine in the early editions which are little more than 300 pages long but gets harder towards the 1990s when they hit 1000 pages though the advent of the internet has meant they have started shrinking again with the latest edition, 2011-12, coming in at just under 700. Saying that whole swathes of the directory that weren’t relevant to the street being researched could be ignored. The first problem regarding use of this resource is what is not there as not every business has bothered to list themselves. Crossing over was also a problem, the last street directory listed seven butchers in Sydney Street whilst the first YP listed only two though I was aware that one of these owned or had owned four of the others. The whereabouts of these butchers is still a mystery though a couple of names crop up trading from other addresses elsewhere. This leads on to another problem, namely multiple addresses, Rayford Electrics which traded from a number of different shops in the street were never given a street number in the YP just the name of the street during the 1980s. Some of this was resolved if the business added an advert which would give the full address which Rayford never bothered with though others did but not always for the entire tenure of their stay. All dates given relate to the year the address first or last appeared in YP whose published date seems to be a year ahead of the actual information. The date of issue was a singular year up to 1991, the next volume was dated 1992-93 and has remained so ever since and subsequently if the current volume at the time of writing is 2011-12 that probably covers all information up to the end of 2010.

USED:
Single years
1975-91 except 1979, 1983, 1989.
Double years
1992-93, 1994-95, 1995-96, 1997-98, 2000-01, 2002-03, 2005-06, 2007-08, 2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12

RESIDENTIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORIES
I used these to augment the searches using YP though they were useful only in looking for businesses whose names I already knew. Of the 14 businesses missing from the 1974-75 crossover I found three here. They also helped solve two of the mysteries of the peripatetic Rayford Electrics in two addresses I hadn’t realised they had occupied. Prior to 1992 all names were in alphabetical order, residential and business, these sections were then split after that date making searching particularly useful for business names I knew but had no set date or address.

USED
1975, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1981, 1984, April 1986, July 1988, May 1990, January 1992, July 1993, January 1995, June 1996, July 1999, January 2001, July 2002, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2011-12.

ONLINE DIRECTORIES
John Farrant in his article linked above comments on the quality of information from the early days of the Street Directory whereby some companies worked hard to produce as much accurate data as possible at regular intervals whereas other companies just copied a year to try and make a quick buck rarely checking for errors and often not bothering to update it. Interestingly this seems to be replicated by many online directories, many are utterly useless and are often a few years out of date, one had not been updated since 2005 whilst another based on postcode searches gave out addresses of businesses that had not operated since the late 1990s. At least the latter was useful in an historical context giving me the names of a number of businesses I had not known about some of which I was able to date through the residential phone directories.
North Laine trading site LinkExternal link

OTHER RESOURCES
Four online resources deserve a mention
My brighton & Hove LinkExternal link threw up lots of memories within the comments.
Nclaonline LinkExternal link for the same reason
Bygone East Brighton LinkExternal link though focussing on an outer suburb of the city threw up a couple of images of William Speed’s greengrocer which enabled me to solve a riddle regarding number 1 Sydney Street.
Punkbrighton LinkExternal link was particularly useful for the history of Attrix Records.
The James Gray Collection LinkExternal link Fantastic archive of old photographs of Brighton. Gray was a stamp collector who was given some old photographs of Brighton in the 1950s and began collecting those instead. He also added pictures of his own and specifically recorded demolitions and changes around the town from the 1960s onwards until his death in the late 1990s. Each image was stuck in an album with a written description added to it or a set.
Flickr also provided valuable information with a wide range of pictures of the street enabling me to date and sometimes discover businesses that never made it to any directory particularly in the years from 2005 and one or two further back.

GOAD MAPS
Originally compiled for fire insurance purposes in the 19th century these maps, based on large scale OS maps, have evolved into charting the occupation of a city’s central business district. Each map of the city centre would include highlighting an area used for retail or business then naming each individual unit. Up to 1999 a hard copy map was produced annually since then they have been produced digitally. Goad maps are currently owned by Experian, the credit agency, and can be purchased through them though they are expensive. A fair number of hard copies can be found at the British Library and other repositories around the country. A few find their way online usually as part of a council or estate agents plan.

Creative Commons Licence [Some Rights Reserved]   © Copyright Simon Carey and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.
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Grid Square
TQ3104, 1934 images   (more nearby search)
Photographer
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Date Taken
Sunday, 25 September, 2011   (more nearby)
Submitted
Thursday, 29 September, 2011
Category
Shop   (more nearby)
Subject Location
OSGB36: geotagged! TQ 3110 0441 [10m precision]
WGS84: 50:49.4638N 0:8.4026W
Camera Location
OSGB36: geotagged! TQ 3112 0442
View Direction
West-southwest (about 247 degrees)
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